The 2019 Nobel Prize announcements are underway this week, with the first prize, in the category of physiology or medicine, going to a trio of scientists for their work on cells’ ability to sense and react to oxygen availability.
The Nobel Prize in physics, chemistry, literature, and peace, and the prize in economic sciences, will follow over the next seven days. The awards are a recognition of work that advances each of the respective fields. Nobel winners are given a medal, a certificate and a cash award of about $900,000 (when multiple people win a single Nobel, they typically split the cash award.)
Here are the 2019 Nobel Prize winners (so far):
2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
William G. Kaelin Jr., Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza won the 2019 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. The trio “identified molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen,” according to The Nobel Assembly. Their work, says the Assembly, has “paved the way for promising new strategies to fight anemia, cancer and many other diseases.”
2019 Nobel Prize in Physics
James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz won the 2019 Nobel Prize in physics. Peebles, of Princeton University, received half of the award, per the Nobel Assembly, for work focused on “theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology,” while Mayor and Queloz, of the University of Geneva (and, for Queloz, Cambridge University) shared half the award “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star.”
“This year’s Laureates have transformed our ideas about the cosmos,” the Assembly wrote in a release accompanying the Prize’s announcement. “While James Peebles’ theoretical discoveries contributed to our understanding of how the universe evolved after the Big Bang, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz explored our cosmic neighborhoods on the hunt for unknown planets. Their discoveries have forever changed our conceptions of the world.”
2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino won the 2019 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The three scientists have all worked to develop and advance lithium-ion batteries, now-ubiquitous technology which the Nobel Assembly said has “laid the foundation of a wireless, fossil fuel-free society.”
2019 Nobel Prize in Literature
The 2019 Nobel Prize in literature will be announced on Thursday, Oct. 10. The 2018 Nobel Prize in literature will also be announced on Thursday, Oct. 10; last year’s announcement was canceled in the midst of sexual assault allegations.
2019 Nobel Prize in Peace
The 2019 Nobel Peace Prize will be announced on Friday, Oct. 11.
2019 Prize in Economic Sciences
The 2019 Prize in economic sciences will be announced on Monday, Oct. 14.